A synonym for colour is hue.
Colours may be made lighter or darker by adding white or black respectively.
A lighter version of a particular colour is called a tint ( as in Pink from red).
A darker version is called a shade.
Tone means the dull or brighter variants of a colour by combining grey.
Primary colours: Red, Green, Blue
Secondary colours are derived by mixing primary colours.orange, green purple
Tertiary: Mixing primary and secondary
Colour Wheel Chart:
Complementary Colours: are opposite to each other on the color wheel. An example of complementary colors is red and green.
Value: Degree of lightness or darkness of a colour.
Warm Vs Cool Colours:
Almost all people find some colors 'warm' and other colors 'cool'. Generally, the 'warm' ones are seen as related to the yellow/orange side of the color wheel chart, and the 'cool' ones to the blue/green side (this is independent of how many primary colors you're rooting for).